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Date posted: December 29th 2016

Book Title: Cosmos (post pictures)

A rough scale of how far the nearest stars are, with the exception that the colored circles (stars) are 4 million times larger than they are supposed to be. This picture is terrible at depicting distances, the stars are way too big. To put it another way, if the sun was the size you are currently seeing it in this picture2, Earth would be 20 inches away (and you would need a microscope to see it) and proxima centauri would be 87 miles away!!!

Image under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons



The Hubble Telescope (looking deep into space) detecting dark patches that we can't comprehend

Image under Public Domain via Hubble Site



Eratosthenes (left) and a sketch of his method for calculating the size of the Earth (right). This story is sometimes told with a well (instead of a stick). I think what happened was that he only heard the stories about this a distant city, where (for a day) sticks cast no shadows and the Sun goes straight into wells. He may have not even seen them, but knowing that, he only had to look at the shadows in his own city (on that same day) and measuring the distance between the cities, he did the math. Amazing isn’t it?

Left and right images under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons



The Great Library of Alexandria

Image under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons



A picture of a microorganism of this era (obviously), in which the cell seems to be separated in smaller sections (circles if you will). It is believed that similar versions of those circles were once their on their own, and they later grouped to form a cell.
Kind of like how those cells then grouped to form animals and stuff... Or how humans group to form cities. Life just seems to group together to form a bigger entity.
It’s kind of weird to think about it, because it seems like I’m implying that cities are living organisms. Are they not?

Image by Dietzel65 under Creative Commons license Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany via Wikimedia Commons



This little worm‑looking thing is about a millimeter in length, and it was dyed it with a pigment that makes the cell nuclei glow red, meaning each dot represents a cell. How many red dots do you see? Perhaps three thousand? Imagine then, three thousand of those in the previous picture now put together as a whole to form this roundworm. Very cool huh?

Image by Quadell under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Generic license via Wikimedia Commons



Statues of Trilobites at the World Museum in Liverpool, England. The biggest trilobites got to be up to 30 cm long (12 inches)

Image by Rept0n1x under Creative Commons license BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons



Deciduous trees are those who shed their leaves to save energy during the winter. An example of a living organism that adapted to the cycles of the Earth

Image under Public Domain via Pixels



Nicolaus Copernicus

Image under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons



Johannes Kepler

Image under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons



Venera 9 was a spacecraft from the Soviet Union that was inserted into Venus’ orbit in October 20th 1975

Image under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons



The surface of Mars showing a southern polar cap and a surface glow from its atmosphere

Image under Public Domain via HubbleSite



Both Voyagers look exacltly the same

Image under Public Domain via JPL



A diagram of the trajectories that the Voyagers took in order to escape our solar system

Image under Public Domain via JPL



Christiaan Huygens

Image under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons



Thales of Miletus

Image under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons



Anaximander of Miletus

Image under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons



Democritus of Abdera

Image under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons



Pythagoras

Image by Galilea under Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 license via Wikimedia Commons



Novas and certain types of supernovas are known standard candles. The image above is a type-1a supernova1

Image under Creative Commons BY 3.0 license via Hubble Space Telescope



Images of quasars. Rather boring…

Image under Public Domain via NASA



Helios the god of the Sun (left) and the Sun (right)

Image under Public Domain via NASA



One of the smallest stars in our Milky Way Galaxy can be found in a binary system of two red dwarfs called Gliese 623b. We’ll talk about binary systems later but for now, just notice there are two here. The one in the center which is pretty obvious, but there’s a tiny little fireball to the right of it. That tiny star is ten times less massive than the Sun and 60,000 times fainter. You can also appreciate the nebula around them

Image under Creative Commons BY 3.0 license via Hubble Space Telescope



I found this cool scale. It’s missing some detail but shows (in a nutshell) the life cycle of the Sun. If you are wondering at what point the Earth was formed, well almost at the same time as the Sun was formed

Image under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons



An artist depiction of a binary star system where the white dwarf is attracting the stellar dust shed by the red giant. This triggers explosions called Novas, they have a of known luminescence and are therefore used as standard candles

Image © David A. Hardy via AstroArt



When a neutron star rotates very rapidly it often emits pulses of radiation and when they do they are called pulsars. This is a sketch of a pulsar. The sphere in the middle represents the neutron star, the curves indicate the magnetic field lines, the protruding cones represent the radiation emission beams, and the green line represents the axis on which the star rotates

Image by Mysid under Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 license via Wikimedia Commons



A sketch of DNA being split and replicated

Image by Madprime under Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 license via Wikimedia Commons



A cartoon of Darwin’s face on a chimp’s body

Image under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons



Made with public domain images from this post.
Ever since I read this book I’ve been making a timeline of the universe. If you want to check it out click here

Image under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license via www.chasanabria.com



This mythical creature is very fond of barriers and labels. Not precisely the way to overcome hostility

Image by gageskidmore under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic License via Flickr

  1. We will talk about what novas and supernovas are later

  2. About 3/16 of an inch (if you are on a 1680x1050 screen)